Free and open-source software. Soft open


What is a Soft Opening? (with pictures)

orangey03Post 7

I was surprised to learn that even homeless shelters have soft openings. I always thought that their operation would be pretty cut and dry, but my friend who volunteered at one said that it never hurts to be prepared.

The shelter where she worked started out just serving a meal at night. The workers wanted to get a feel for their guests and their needs.

Once they got an estimate of how many people would be wanting to stay there overnight, they purchased cots and opened to the public. This was a good way for them to prepare for the amount of people who would need their services.

StarJoPost 6

My friend owns a small party supply business, and she and her husband decided to have a soft opening about a week before their grand opening event. They discovered things during this time that made them glad they had decided to open early.

For one thing, the cash registers decided to quit working about halfway through the first day. They had to get them repaired, and luckily, they had time to do this. In the meantime, they just used a calculator and stored the cash in a lock box.

Also, their air conditioning quit working on the second day. It would be two days before the repairman could come.

By the day of their grand opening, they had fixed just about everything that could have broken. They felt confident in the operation of their store and their equipment, and they didn't have any additional problems.

PerdidoPost 5

@disciples – If you see a business that looks like it is nearing completion on construction, you might drive up into the parking lot to take a closer look. Often, new businesses will have signs on the doors stating their planned opening date.

It's not always a total secret. After all, they want some people to show up. Since the first opening date is almost never the grand opening, they usually post it on a sign outdoors for those people who are interested enough in the business to drive up and check.

I have even seen some new businesses run a small ad in the newspaper stating the date of their soft opening. Sometimes, they put this date in small type and have the grand opening date in larger, bold type so that it is the main focus of the ad.

shell4lifePost 4

@summing – I don't think that it would be a waste of money. What if you have the soft opening just a couple of days before the grand opening? Then it will be like opening for good.

After all, it's not like you will be shutting down after the soft opening to prepare for the grand opening, right? Unless there are major issues that cause you to need to shut down to prepare for it, you should remain open. If there are issues, wouldn't you want to know about them beforehand?

I don't think that a soft opening is ever a bad idea. It's not a waste; it's a precaution and an investment.

disciplesPost 3

How do you know if a business is having a soft opening? I have always wanted to go to something like this but have never known how to get an invite. Suggestions?

summingPost 2

My partner and I are opening our restaurant in three months and we have been debating whether or not to have a soft opening. I think it is a great idea because it will give us a chance to get everyone trained and the whole operation running smoothly before we are open to everyone.

My partner thinks that it is a waste of time and money and that we should just get prepared and then open for good. Who do you think is right? How do you know if a soft opening is right for your business?

Ivan83Post 1 I have been to a couple of soft openings for restaurants and they are really great fun. You get to eat a lot of good food and drink, usually free or at discounted prices, and the whole affair has the feel of a premier without all of the pressure. Everyone is in a good mood if a little bit frazzled.

Now, you have to be willing to put up with some mistakes. The purpose of a soft opening is to work out some of the kinks so expect there to be kinks. But if you are a good sport about it, it is really nothing that will ruin the experience.

www.wisegeek.com

Free and open-source software - Wikipedia

Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.[a] That is, anyone is freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any way, and the source code is openly shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software.[3] This is in contrast to proprietary software, where the software is under restrictive copyright and the source code is usually hidden from the users.

The benefits of using FOSS can include decreased software costs, increased security and stability (especially in regard to malware), protecting privacy, education, and giving users more control over their own hardware. Free, open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendents of BSD are widely utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops, smartphones (e.g. Android), and other devices.Free software licenses and open-source licenses are used by many software packages. The Free software movement and the open-source software movement are online social movements behind widespread production and adoption of FOSS.

Overview[edit]

Free and open source software is an umbrella term for software that is free and open source software. Free and open source software is provided free of charge, allows the user to inspect the source code, and provides a relatively high level of control of the software's functions compared to proprietary software.

According to the Free Software Foundation, "Nearly all open source software is free software. The two terms describe almost the same category of software, but they stand for views based on fundamentally different values." Thus, the Open Source Initiative considers many free software licenses to also be open-source. These include the latest versions of the FSF's three main licenses: the GPL, the Lesser General Public License (LGPL), and the GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL).[7] Thus, terminology of free and open source software is intended to be neutral on these philosophical disagreements.

There are a number of related terms and abbreviations for free and open source software (FOSS or F/OSS) or free/libre and open source software (FLOSS).

Free software[edit]

Richard Stallman's Free Software Definition, adopted by the Free Software Foundation (FSF), defines free software as a matter of liberty, not price.[8] The earliest known publication of the definition of his free software idea was in the February 1986 edition[9] of the FSF's now-discontinued GNU's Bulletin publication. The canonical source for the document is in the philosophy section of the GNU Project website. As of August 2017, it is published there in 40 languages.[10]

Open source[edit]

The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether a software license qualifies for the organization's insignia for open-source software. The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Bruce Perens.[11][12] Perens did not base his writing on the four freedoms of free software from the Free Software Foundation, which were only later available on the web.[13] Perens subsequently stated that he felt Eric Raymond's promotion of open source unfairly overshadowed the Free Software Foundation's efforts and reaffirmed his support for free software.[14] In the following 2000s he spoke about Open source again.[15][16]

History[edit]

In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s to 1980s, it was common for computer users to have the source code for all programs they used, and the permission and ability to modify it for their own use. Software, including source code, was commonly shared by individuals who used computers, often as public domain software.[17] Most companies had a business model based on hardware sales, and provided or bundled software with hardware, free of charge.[18] Organizations of users and suppliers were formed to facilitate the exchange of software; see, for example, SHARE and DECUS.

By the late 1960s, the prevailing business model around software was changing. A growing and evolving software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products; rather than funding software development from hardware revenue, these new companies were selling software directly. Leased machines required software support while providing no revenue for software, and some customers able to better meet their own needs did not want the costs of software bundled with hardware product costs. In United States vs. IBM, filed 17 January 1969, the government charged that bundled software was anticompetitive. While some software might always be free, there would be a growing amount of software that was for sale only. In the 1970s and early 1980s, some parts of the software industry began using technical measures (such as distributing only binary copies of computer programs) to prevent computer users from being able to use reverse engineering techniques to study and customize software they had paid for. In 1980, the copyright law was extended to computer programs in the United States[20]—previously, computer programs could be considered ideas, procedures, methods, systems, and processes, which are not copyrightable.[21]

Early on, closed-source software was uncommon until the mid-1970s to the 1980s, when IBM implemented in 1983 a "object code only" policy not handing out anymore the source code.[23][24][25]

In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. An article outlining the project and its goals was published in March 1985 titled the GNU Manifesto. The manifesto included significant explanation of the GNU philosophy, Free Software Definition and "copyleft" ideas.

The Linux kernel, started by Linus Torvalds, was released as freely modifiable source code in 1991. Initially, Linux was not released under a free or open-source software license. However, with version 0.12 in February 1992, he relicensed the project under the GNU General Public License.[27] Much like Unix, Torvalds' kernel attracted the attention of volunteer programmers.[citation needed]

FreeBSD and NetBSD (both derived from 386BSD) were released as free software when the USL v. BSDi lawsuit was settled out of court in 1993. OpenBSD forked from NetBSD in 1995. Also in 1995, The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache, was released under the Apache License 1.0.

In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software. This code is today better known as Mozilla Firefox and Thunderbird.

Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the FSF's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry. They concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new name they chose was "open source", and quickly Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, and others signed on to the rebranding. The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.[28]

While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves increasingly threatened by the concept of freely distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." This view perfectly summarizes the initial response to FOSS by some software corporations.[citation needed] However, while FOSS has historically played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle, Google and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of free and open-source software (FOSS).

Benefits over proprietary software[edit]

Privacy and security[edit]

Manufacturers of proprietary, closed-source software are sometimes pressured to building in backdoors or other covert, undesired features into their software.[31][32][33][34] Instead of having to trust software vendors users of FOSS can inspect and verify the source code themselves and can put trust on a community of volunteers and users.[35] As proprietary code is typically hidden from public view, only the vendors themselves and hackers may be aware of any vulnerabilities in them[35] while FOSS involves as many people as possible for exposing bugs quickly.[36][37]

Personal control, customizability and freedom[edit]

Users of FOSS benefit from the freedoms to making unrestricted use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute such software. If they would like to change the functionality of software they can bring about changes to the code and, if they wish, distribute such modified versions of the software or often − depending on the software's decision making model and its other users − even push or request such changes to be made via updates to the original software.[38][39][40][41][35]

Low costs or no costs[edit]

FOSS is often free of charge although donations are often encouraged. This also allows users to better test and compare software.[35]

Quality, collaboration and efficiency[edit]

FOSS allows for better collaboration among various parties and individuals with the goal of developing the most efficient software for its users or use-cases while proprietary software is typically meant to generate profits. Furthermore, in many cases more organizations and individuals contribute to such projects than to proprietary software.[35] It has been shown that technical superiority is typically the primary reason why companies choose open source software.[35] Companies might build in artificial barriers, inefficiencies or undesired functionality to increase monetary return.

Drawbacks to proprietary software[edit]

Security and user-support[edit]

According to Linus's Law the more people who can see and test a set of code, the more likely any flaws will be caught and fixed quickly. However, this does not guarantee a high level of participation. Having a grouping of full-time professionals behind a commercial product can in some cases be superior to FOSS.[35][36][42] There also can be undesired functionality be built intentionally into FOSS and not get detected or fixed − e.g. due to no or few users checking the source code, changes to the software getting denied or the source code being hardly readable.

Furthermore, publicized source code might make it easier for hackers to find vulnerabilities in it and write exploits. This however assumes that such malicious hackers are more effective than white hat hackers which responsibly disclose or help fix the vulnerabilities, that no code leaks or exfiltrations occur and that reverse engineering of proprietary code is a hindrance of significance for malicious hackers.[36]

In general it can be found that FOSS is more secure and has good user-support with some exceptions of specific − especially niche or obsolete − software solutions.

Hardware and software compatibility[edit]

Often FOSS is not compatible with proprietary hardware or specific software. This is often due to manufacturers obstructing FOSS such as by not disclosing the interfaces or other specifications needed for members of the FOSS movement to write drivers for their hardware − for instance as they wish customers to run only their own proprietary software or as they might benefit from partnerships.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][additional citation(s) needed]

Bugs and missing features[edit]

While FOSS can be superior to proprietary equivalents in terms of software features and stability, in many cases FOSS has more unfixed bugs and missing features when compared to similar commercial software.[50][additional citation(s) needed] This varies per case and usually depends on the level of interest and participation in a FOSS project. Furthermore, unlike with typical commercial software missing features and bugfixes can be implemented by any party that has the relevant motivation, time and skill to do so.[42][additional citation(s) needed]

Less guarantees of development[edit]

There is often less certainty in FOSS projects gaining the required resources / participation for continued development than commercial software backed by companies.[51][additional citation(s) needed] However companies also often abolish projects for being unprofitable and often large companies rely on and hence co-develop open source software.[37]

Missing applications[edit]

As the FOSS operating system distributions of GNU/Linux has a lower market share of end users there are also fewer applications available.[52][53]

Technical skills and user-friendliness[edit]

GNU/Linux may require more effort or technical knowledge to set up and maintain.[52] As many GNU/Linux users make extensive use of the command-line many applications lack user-friendliness such as a GUI.

Adoption by governments[edit]

Country Description
 Brazil In 2006, the Brazilian government has simultaneously encouraged the distribution of cheap computers running Linux throughout its poorer communities by subsidizing their purchase with tax breaks.
 Ecuador In April 2008,[55]Ecuador passed a similar law, Decree 1014, designed to migrate the public sector to Libre Software.[56]
 France In March 2009, the French Gendarmerie Nationale announced it will totally switch to Ubuntu by 2015. The Gendarmerie began its transition to open source software in 2005 when it replaced Microsoft Office with OpenOffice.org across the entire organization. In September 2012, the French Prime Minister laid down a set of action-oriented recommendations about using open-source in the French public administration.[58] These recommendations are published in a document based on the works of an inter-ministerial group of experts.[59] This document stops some orientations like establishing an actual convergence on open-source stubs, activating a network of expertise about converging stubs, improving the support of open-source software, contributing to selected stubs, following the big communities, spreading alternatives to the main commercial solutions, tracing the use of open-source and its effects, developing the culture of use of the open-source licenses in the developments of public information systems. One of the aim of this experts groups is also to establish lists of recommended open-source software to use in the French public administration.[60]
 Germany In the German City of Munich, conversion of 15,000 PCs and laptops from Microsoft Windows-based operating systems to a Debian-based Linux environment called LiMux spanned the ten years of 2003 to 2013. After successful completion of the project, more than 80% of all computers were running Linux.[61] On November 13, 2017 The Register reported that Munich is planning to revert to Windows 10 by 2020.[62]
 India The Government of Kerala, India, announced its official support for free/open-source software in its State IT Policy of 2001,[63][discuss] which was formulated after the first-ever free software conference in India, Freedom First!, held in July 2001 in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala. In 2009, Government of Kerala started the International Centre for Free and Open Source Software (ICFOSS).[64] In March 2015 the Indian government announced a policy on adoption of open source software.[66]
 Italy The Italian military is transitioning to LibreOffice and the Open Document Format (ODF). The Ministry of Defence will over the next year-and-a-half install this suite of office productivity tools on some 150,000 PC workstations - making it Europe’s second largest LibreOffice implementation. The switch was announced on September 15, 2015, by the LibreItalia Association.[67] By June 23, 2016, 6 thousand stations have been migrated.[68] E-learning military platform.[69]
 Jordan In January 2010, the Government of Jordan announced a partnership with Ingres Corporation (now named Actian), an open source database management company based in the United States, to promote open-source software use, starting with university systems in Jordan.[70]
 Malaysia Malaysia launched the "Malaysian Public Sector Open Source Software Program", saving millions on proprietary software licenses until 2008.[71][72]
 Peru In 2005 the Government of Peru voted to adopt open source across all its bodies. The 2002 response to Microsoft's critique is available online. In the preamble to the bill, the Peruvian government stressed that the choice was made to ensure that key pillars of democracy were safeguarded: "The basic principles which inspire the Bill are linked to the basic guarantees of a state of law."[74]
 Uganda In September 2014, the Uganda National Information Technology Authority (NITA-U) announced a call for feedback on an Open Source Strategy & Policy[75] at a workshop in conjunction with the ICT Association of Uganda (ICTAU).
 United States In February 2009, the United States White House moved its website to Linux servers using Drupal for content management. In August 2016, the United States government announced a new federal source code policy which mandates that at least 20% of custom source code developed by or for any agency of the federal government be released as open-source software (OSS).[77] In addition, the policy requires that all source code be shared between agencies. The public release is under a three-year pilot program and agencies are obliged to collect data on this pilot to gauge its performance. The overall policy aims to reduce duplication, avoid vendor 'lock-in', and stimulate collaborative development. A new website code.gov provides "an online collection of tools, best practices, and schemas to help agencies implement this policy", the policy announcement stated. It also provides the "primary discoverability portal for custom-developed software intended both for Government-wide reuse and for release as OSS".[77] As yet unspecified OSS licenses will be added to the code.[78]
 Venezuela In 2004, a law in Venezuela (Decree 3390) went into effect, mandating a two-year transition to open source in all public agencies. As of June 2009[update], the transition was still under way.[79][80][needs update]

Adoption by supranational unions and international organizations[edit]

"We migrated key functions from Windows to Linux because we needed an operating system that was stable and reliable -- one that would give us in-house control. So if we needed to patch, adjust, or adapt, we could."

Official statement of the United Space Alliance, which manages the computer systems for the International Space Station (ISS), regarding why they chose to switch from Windows to Linux on the ISS.

In 2017, the European Commission stated that "EU institutions should become open source software users themselves, even more than they already are" and listed open source software as one of the nine key drivers of innovation, together with big data, mobility, cloud computing and the internet of things.[83]

Production[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)

Issues and incidents[edit]

GPLv3 controversy[edit]

While copyright is the primary legal mechanism that FOSS authors use to ensure license compliance for their software, other mechanisms such as legislation, patents, and trademarks have implications as well. In response to legal issues with patents and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), the Free Software Foundation released version 3 of its GNU Public License in 2007 that explicitly addressed the DMCA and patent rights.

After the development of the GNU GPLv3 in 2007, the FSF (as copyright holder of many pieces of the GNU system) updated many[citation needed] of the GNU programs' licenses from GPLv2 to GPLv3. On the other hand, the adoption of the new GPL version was heavily discussed in the FOSS ecosystem,[84] several projects decided against upgrading. For instance the linux kernel,[85][86] the BusyBox[87][88] project, AdvFS,[89]Blender,[90] and as also the VLC media player decided against adopting the GPLv3.[91]

Apple, a user of GCC and a heavy user of both DRM and patents, switched the compiler in its Xcode IDE from GCC to Clang, which is another FOSS compiler but is under a permissive license.[93]LWN speculated that Apple was motivated partly by a desire to avoid GPLv3. The Samba project also switched to GPLv3, so Apple replaced Samba in their software suite by a closed-source, proprietary software alternative.

Skewed prioritization, ineffectiveness and egoism of developers[edit]

Leemhuis criticizes the prioritization of skilled developers who − instead of fixing issues in popular applications and desktop environments − create new, mostly redundant software to gain fame and fortune.[95]

He also criticizes notebook manufacturers for optimizing their own products only privately or creating workarounds instead of helping fix the actual causes of the many issues with GNU/Linux on notebooks such as the unnecessary power consumption.[95]

Commercial ownership of open-source software[edit]

Mergers have affected major open-source software. Sun Microsystems (Sun) acquired MySQL AB, owner of the popular open-source MySQL database, in 2008.[96]

Oracle in turn purchased Sun in January, 2010, acquiring their copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Thus, Oracle became the owner of both the most popular proprietary database and the most popular open-source database. Oracle's attempts to commercialize the open-source MySQL database have raised concerns in the FOSS community. Partly in response to uncertainty about the future of MySQL, the FOSS community forked the project into new database systems outside of Oracle's control. These include MariaDB, Percona, and Drizzle. All of these have distinct names; they are distinct projects and can not use the trademarked name MySQL.

Legal cases[edit]

Oracle v. Google[edit]

In August, 2010, Oracle sued Google, claiming that its use of Java in Android infringed on Oracle's copyrights and patents. The Oracle v. Google case ended in May 2012, with the finding that Google did not infringe on Oracle's patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable. The jury found that Google infringed a small number of copied files, but the parties stipulated that Google would pay no damages. Oracle appealed to the Federal Circuit, and Google filed a cross-appeal on the literal copying claim. Oracle won the appeal, but Google won a subsequent retrial in 2016.[citation needed]

As part/driver of a new socioeconomic model[edit]

By defying ownership regulations in the construction and use of information − a key area of contemporary growth − the Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) movement counters neoliberalism and privatization in general.[102]

By realizing the historical potential of an "economy of abundance" for the new digital world FOSS may lay down a plan for political resistance or show the way towards a potential transformation of capitalism.[102]

Benkler's new economy[edit]

According to Yochai Benkler, Jack N. and Lillian R. Berkman Professor for Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Harvard Law School, free software is the most visible part of a new economy of commons-based peer production of information, knowledge, and culture. As examples, he cites a variety of FOSS projects, including both free software and open-source.

This new economy is already under development. To commercialize FOSS, many companies move towards advertisement-supported software. In such a model, the only way to increase revenue is to make the advertisement more valuable. Facebook was criticized in 2011 for using novel methods of tracking users to accomplish this.

This new economy has alternatives. Apple's App Stores have proven very popular with both users and developers. The Free Software Foundation considers Apple's App Stores to be incompatible with its GPL and complained that Apple was infringing on the GPL with its iTunes terms of use. Rather than change those terms to comply with the GPL, Apple removed the GPL-licensed products from its App Stores.

See also[edit]

  1. ^ FOSS is an inclusive term that covers both free software and open-source software, which despite describing similar development models, have differing cultures and philosophies.Free refers to the users' freedom to copy and re-use the software. The Free Software Foundation, an organization that advocates the free software model, suggests that, to understand the concept, one should "think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer". (See "The Free Software Definition". GNU.org. Retrieved 4 February 2010. ) Free software focuses on the fundamental freedoms it gives to users, whereas open source software focuses on the perceived strengths of its peer-to-peer development model. FOSS is a term that can be used without particular bias towards either political approach.

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  68. ^ Torvalds, Linus. "COPYING". kernel.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013. Also note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as the kernel is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated. 
  69. ^ Kerner, Sean Michael (2008-01-08). "Torvalds Still Keen On GPLv2". internetnews.com. Retrieved 2015-02-12. "In some ways, Linux was the project that really made the split clear between what the FSF is pushing which is very different from what open source and Linux has always been about, which is more of a technical superiority instead of a -- this religious belief in freedom," Torvalds told Zemlin. So, the GPL Version 3 reflects the FSF's goals and the GPL Version 2 pretty closely matches what I think a license should do and so right now, Version 2 is where the kernel is." 
  70. ^ corbet (2006-10-01). "Busy busy busybox". lwn.net. Retrieved 2015-11-21. Since BusyBox can be found in so many embedded systems, it finds itself at the core of the GPLv3 anti-DRM debate. [...]The real outcomes, however, are this: BusyBox will be GPLv2 only starting with the next release. It is generally accepted that stripping out the "or any later version" is legally defensible, and that the merging of other GPLv2-only code will force that issue in any case 
  71. ^ Landley, Rob (2006-09-09). "Re: Move GPLv2 vs v3 fun..." lwn.net. Retrieved 2015-11-21. Don't invent a straw man argument please. I consider licensing BusyBox under GPLv3 to be useless, unnecessary, overcomplicated, and confusing, and in addition to that it has actual downsides. 1) Useless: We're never dropping GPLv2. 
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  • Bridgewater, Adrian (May 13, 2013). "International Space Station adopts Debian Linux, drops Windows & Red Hat into airlock". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Brockmeier, Joe (September 15, 2010). "Apple's Selective Contributions to GCC". LWN.net. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Casson, Tony; Ryan, Patrick S. (May 1, 2006). "Open Standards, Open Source Adoption in the Public Sector, and Their Relationship to Microsoft's Market Dominance". In Bolin, Sherrie. Standards Edge: Unifier or Divider?. Sheridan Books. p. 87. ISBN 0974864854. SSRN 1656616 . 
  • Charny, B. (May 3, 2001). "Microsoft Raps Open-Source Approach". CNET News. 
  • Claburn, Thomas (January 17, 2007). "Study Finds Open Source Benefits Business". InformationWeek. CMP Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  • Clarke, Gavin (September 29, 2005). "Peru's parliament approves pro-open source bill". The Register. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • ElBoghdady, Dina; Tsukayama, Hayley (September 29, 2011). "Facebook tracking prompts calls for FTC investigation". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Feller, Joseph (ed.) (2005). Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262062466. 
  • Fisher, Franklin M.; McKie, James W.; Mancke, Richard B. (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. ISBN 0-03-063059-2. 
  • Gunter, Joel (May 10, 2013). "International Space Station to boldly go with Linux over Windows". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Hatlestad, Luc (August 9, 2005). "LinuxWorld Showcases Open-Source Growth, Expansion". InformationWeek. CMP Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 2007-12-02. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  • Holwerda, Thom (March 26, 2011). "Apple Ditches SAMBA in Favour of Homegrown Replacement". OS News. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Jones, Pamela (October 5, 2012). "Oracle and Google File Appeals". Groklaw. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Miller, K. W.; Voas, J.; Costello, T. (2010). "Free and open source software". IT Professional. 12 (6): 14–16. doi:10.1109/MITP.2010.147. 
  • Nelson, Russell (December 13, 2009). "Open Source, MySQL, and trademarks". Opensource.org. Open Source Initiative. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Niccolai, James (June 20, 2012). "Oracle agrees to 'zero' damages in Google lawsuit, eyes appeal". Computerworld. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Paul, Ryan (March 11, 2009). "French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Perens, Bruce (1999). "The Open Source Definition". Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-56592-582-3. 
  • Samson, Ted (March 17, 2011). "Non-Oracle MySQL fork deemed ready for prime time". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Stallman, Richard (n.d.). "Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software". GNU.org. Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Thomson, Iain (September 16, 2011). "Oracle offers commercial extensions to MySQL". The Register. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (October 29, 2009). "Obama Invites Open Source into the White House". PCWorld. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (January 8, 2011). "No GPL Apps for Apple's App Store". ZDNet. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  • Weber, Steve (2009). The Success of Open Source. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780674044999. 
  • William, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0596002879. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Barr, Joe (1998). "Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source"". Free Software Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-11-25. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  • Salus, Peter H. (March 28, 2005). "A History of Free and Open Source". Groklaw. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  • Vetter, G. (2009). "Commercial Free and Open Source Software: Knowledge Production, Hybrid Appropriability, and Patents". Fordham Law Review. 77 (5): 2087–2141. 
  • Wheeler, David A. (May 8, 2014). "Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers!". DWheeler.com. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 

en.wikipedia.org

Posse: Soft Opening Album Review

Posse does not have some kind of marvelous origin story, there is no blood oath or volatile, undeniable chemistry. The songwriting duo of Paul Wittmann-Todd and Sacha Maxim met during a show at a Seattle lesbian bar and decided to collaborate because the former "didn't have a lot of other options." On their sophomore album Soft Opening, Wittmann-Todd and Maxim exhibit that same kind of non-committal camaraderie, as their vocals do not harmonize or intertwine or do battle; most of the time, they exchange one-sided conversations, acknowledging each other and going about their business. Every instrument is given enough space to do whatever it wants as long as it cleans up after itself. It's the musical equivalent of roommates who randomly linked up on Craigslist and totally worked things out. Whatever qualities this might suggest in Posse as people lend a lived-in bumminess to Soft Opening, imbuing its no-frills, rumpled indie rock with a discernible point of view and more importantly, a personality.

That’s important, because this is really no-frills indie rock. The most notable studio tricks Posse employ are a fuzz pedal, a tambourine, and the occasional echo on Maxim’s vocals. Either Wittmann-Todd is playing an extremely avant-garde solo during a portion of “Jon” or they simply didn’t feel like overdubbing a flubbed take. On the up-tempo numbers, Posse recall a rainy day Real Estate, a less bookish Galaxie 500, or Yo La Tengo driven by a equivocal, platonic friendship. On slower-than-slowcore “Talk", they’re all but mesmerized by their own torpor, situated somewhere in between Pavement’s “Stop Breathing” and Built to Spill’s “Cleo” in terms of uncomfortably numb guitar heroism. Similar to those bands, Posse make music that is lo-fi without sounding cheap, purposeful minimalism that can sound strangely expansive: Maxim and Wittmann-Todd’s vocals are barely projected without being off-key, and the guitar leads have an effortless melodicism whenever they take over. Even if most of these songs could be strummed out from a beanbag chair, Posse always add a chord that fancies things up just enough.

Posse describe their sound as “delay pedals and 27 years of disappointment”, which may not be factually correct; you hear a lot more of the latter than the former, and the second line of opener “Interesting Thing No. 2” is “You turned 25, so many things you haven’t tried.” It’s theoretically sound all the same, since Soft Opening’s self-deprecation is a big part of its appeal. For all of its invocations of 80s and 90s A-listers, Soft Opening is an of-the-moment record in the way it aligns with the sort of sitcoms that dominate the viewing habits of people Posse’s age: the actors involved are presented as friends, yet they don’t really seem to like each other all that much.

In the case of Soft Opening, nearly every song is a subtly hilarious metacommentary on some sort of communication breakdown. Maxim sings, “I know you’re gonna talk through this and not care,” and you can easily visualize the shoulder shrug, the eye-rolling, the internal defeat she anticipates with this interaction. With every repetition, it cuts deeper and deeper as an insult: you are someone who simply can’t handle sitting in silence with their own feelings. A song later on “Shut Up”, a drunk and bored Wittmann-Todd fantasizes about a time when he’s going to work up the nerve to tell someone to shut their yap, even if it’s himself: “I’m gonna watch you go outside now/ And make a stupid face/ And shut up."

And yet, none of this venting comes off as mean-spirited. In fact, most of Soft Opening unwinds with the casual bonhomie of three post-work beers over darts; the deleterious effects are minimal compared to the necessary release and bonding. And hell, if Posse seem to have a strange enjoyment for each other’s company in spite of it all, well, it’s because the outside world doesn’t have that much more to offer. “Cassandra B.” relates a date between overeducated, underfunded Seattlites as they down too much vodka, go to an “intelligent rap” show (“A bald white guy/ With a mumu onstage”) and lie about reading Willa Cather books that were bought at college and promptly shelved. As with every dryly hysterical line on Soft Opening, there’s never any “pitchiness”; it’s never trying to be any more droll and absurd than life itself.

Despite the litany of disappointments, misunderstandings, and aimlessness befalling the narrators in these songs, Soft Opening is a record of oddly stoic presence. For one thing, the austere sonics and plainspoken lyrics ensure that nothing gets glossed overso it's a tough record to tune out. But also, Posse sound exactly like the band they want to be—you don’t sense any musical ambition unmet, any word misplaced. It’s a modest record done confidently, enough to end with a six-minute guitar workout based around the lyric that perfectly encapsulates Soft Opening’s comforting sadness, its satisfied misanthropy: “Don’t touch me/ I’m in my zone.”

pitchfork.com

What is open source software?

The term "open source" refers to something people can modify and share because its design is publicly accessible.

The term originated in the context of software development to designate a specific approach to creating computer programs. Today, however, "open source" designates a broader set of values—what we call "the open source way." Open source projects, products, or initiatives embrace and celebrate principles of open exchange, collaborative participation, rapid prototyping, transparency, meritocracy, and community-oriented development.

What is open source software?

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

"Source code" is the part of software that most computer users don't ever see; it's the code computer programmers can manipulate to change how a piece of software—a "program" or "application"—works. Programmers who have access to a computer program's source code can improve that program by adding features to it or fixing parts that don't always work correctly.

What's the difference between open source software and other types of software?

Some software has source code that only the person, team, or organization who created it—and maintains exclusive control over it—can modify. People call this kind of software "proprietary" or "closed source" software.

Only the original authors of proprietary software can legally copy, inspect, and alter that software. And in order to use proprietary software, computer users must agree (usually by signing a license displayed the first time they run this software) that they will not do anything with the software that the software's authors have not expressly permitted. Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary software.

Open source software is different. Its authors make its source code available to others who would like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, alter it, or share it. LibreOffice and the GNU Image Manipulation Program are examples of open source software.

As they do with proprietary software, users must accept the terms of a license when they use open source software—but the legal terms of open source licenses differ dramatically from those of proprietary licenses.

Open source licenses affect the way people can use, study, modify, and distribute software. In general, open source licenses grant computer users permission to use open source software for any purpose they wish. Some open source licenses—what some people call "copyleft" licenses—stipulate that anyone who releases a modified open source program must also release the source code for that program alongside it. Moreover, some open source licenses stipulate that anyone who alters and shares a program with others must also share that program's source code without charging a licensing fee for it.

By design, open source software licenses promote collaboration and sharing because they permit other people to make modifications to source code and incorporate those changes into their own projects. They encourage computer programmers to access, view, and modify open source software whenever they like, as long as they let others do the same when they share their work.

Is open source software only important to computer programmers?

No. Open source technology and open source thinking both benefit programmers and non-programmers.

Because early inventors built much of the Internet itself on open source technologies—like the Linux operating system and the Apache Web server application—anyone using the Internet today benefits from open source software.

Every time computer users view web pages, check email, chat with friends, stream music online, or play multiplayer video games, their computers, mobile phones, or gaming consoles connect to a global network of computers using open source software to route and transmit their data to the "local" devices they have in front of them. The computers that do all this important work are typically located in faraway places that users don't actually see or can't physically access—which is why some people call these computers "remote computers."

More and more, people rely on remote computers when performing tasks they might otherwise perform on their local devices. For example, they may use online word processing, email management, and image editing software that they don't install and run on their personal computers. Instead, they simply access these programs on remote computers by using a Web browser or mobile phone application. When they do this, they're engaged in "remote computing."

Some people call remote computing "cloud computing," because it involves activities (like storing files, sharing photos, or watching videos) that incorporate not only local devices but also a global network of remote computers that form an "atmosphere" around them.

Cloud computing is an increasingly important aspect of everyday life with Internet-connected devices. Some cloud computing applications, like Google Apps, are proprietary. Others, like ownCloud and Nextcloud, are open source.

Cloud computing applications run "on top" of additional software that helps them operate smoothly and efficiently, so people will often say that software running "underneath" cloud computing applications acts as a "platform" for those applications. Cloud computing platforms can be open source or closed source. OpenStack is an example of an open source cloud computing platform.

Why do people prefer using open source software?

People prefer open source software to proprietary software for a number of reasons, including:

Control. Many people prefer open source software because they have more control over that kind of software. They can examine the code to make sure it's not doing anything they don't want it to do, and they can change parts of it they don't like. Users who aren't programmers also benefit from open source software, because they can use this software for any purpose they wish—not merely the way someone else thinks they should.

Training. Other people like open source software because it helps them become better programmers. Because open source code is publicly accessible, students can easily study it as they learn to make better software. Students can also share their work with others, inviting comment and critique, as they develop their skills. When people discover mistakes in programs' source code, they can share those mistakes with others to help them avoid making those same mistakes themselves.

Security. Some people prefer open source software because they consider it more secure and stable than proprietary software. Because anyone can view and modify open source software, someone might spot and correct errors or omissions that a program's original authors might have missed. And because so many programmers can work on a piece of open source software without asking for permission from original authors, they can fix, update, and upgrade open source software more quickly than they can proprietary software.

Stability. Many users prefer open source software to proprietary software for important, long-term projects. Because programmers publicly distribute the source code for open source software, users relying on that software for critical tasks can be sure their tools won't disappear or fall into disrepair if their original creators stop working on them. Additionally, open source software tends to both incorporate and operate according to open standards.

Doesn't "open source" just mean something is free of charge?

No. This is a common misconception about what "open source" implies, and the concept's implications are not only economic.

Open source software programmers can charge money for the open source software they create or to which they contribute. But in some cases, because an open source license might require them to release their source code when they sell software to others, some programmers find that charging users money for software services and support (rather than for the software itself) is more lucrative. This way, their software remains free of charge, and they make money helping others install, use, and troubleshoot it.

While some open source software may be free of charge, skill in programming and troubleshooting open source software can be quite valuable. Many employers specifically seek to hire programmers with experience working on open source software.

What is open source "beyond software"?

At Opensource.com, we like to say that we're interested in the ways open source values and principles apply to the world beyond software. We like to think of open source as not only a way to develop and license computer software, but also an attitude.

Approaching all aspects of life "the open source way" means expressing a willingness to share, collaborating with others in ways that are transparent (so that others can watch and join too), embracing failure as a means of improving, and expecting—even encouraging—everyone else to do the same.

It also means committing to playing an active role in improving the world, which is possible only when everyone has access to the way that world is designed.

The world is full of "source code"—blueprints, recipes, rules—that guide and shape the way we think and act in it. We believe this underlying code (whatever its form) should be open, accessible, and shared—so many people can have a hand in altering it for the better.

Here, we tell stories about the impact of open source values on all areas of life—science, education, government, manufacturing, health, law, and organizational dynamics. We're a community committed to telling others how the open source way is the best way, because a love of open source is just like anything else: it's better when it's shared.

Where can I learn more about open source?

We've compiled several resources designed to help you learn more about open source. We recommend you read our open source FAQs, how-to guides, and tutorials to get started.

opensource.com

Skin care

It turns out that in February, must start taking maintenance of that freckles are not there. Before you go out, particularly on a sunny day, you require to wipe a face with strong brewed green green tea, then use a sunscreen with big SPF.Striking makeup, you can use the powder and concealer - you will better protect the skin from the sun, but too thick to use still must not be.Similar posts: Face care serum Facials fall at home Masks for skin later biorevitalisation. . . . .

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But before the cover off, you request to properly cleanse the skin. Specifically efficient cover how peelings, following steam bath or hot compress. Use the cover to the massage lines.Face mask may be applied with a brushing, sponge, brush, cotton swab or fingertips. All this should be immaculately clean out.Later that, for greater capacity it is desirable to cover a face with hot gauze or aluminum foil.Cleansing, anti-inflammatory, astringent and clay covers, and masks containing recent fresh fruit, vegetables and cereals, female facial skin Carefully wash off with lukewarm water (with a cotton swab). To strengthen the effect in the aqua, you can add lemon juice or big apple cider vinegar (a teaspoon in a glass of water). Gerls with normal to very dry facial skin is consummate to use in this case, the infusion of herbs, rather weak tea, milk, soup hips, salted coldness boiled water.

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A easiest method to prepare a mask for the face - crushed fresh berries or apples, and immediately put on the skin. If crushed raw vegetables or fresh fruits are juicy enough, may be added to a slurry, milk. If the slurry, on a contrary, too thin, it is added mealy. It is also convenient to put whole items of orange, tomato, cucumber and grapefruit. If a consistency of a mask is the juice, then it is applied so follows: a piece of gauze with cutouts for eyes, nose and mouth soaked in nectar, a some squeeze and put on the facial skin and neck skin. Instead of gauze may be used a thin layer of cotton wool.

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But before the mask off, you demand to well cleanse the face. Particularly effectual mask so peelings, following steam bath or hot compress. Apply the cover to a massotherapy lines.Face cover can be used with a brush, sponge, brush, cotton swab or fingertips. All this want be immaculately clean out.After that, for greater capacity it is desirable to cover the face with hot gauze or aluminum foil.Cleansing, anti-inflammatory, astringent and clay covers, and masks containing good watermelon, vegetables and cereals, female skin bath off with lukewarm water (with a cotton swab). To strengthen the capacity in the aqua, It is possible to throw in lemon breeding juice or red apple cider vinegar (a tsp. In a glass of water).

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Why do I have skin irritation? A causes can be a lot of and not only.External factors may incorporate irritation of the face capacity of weather and climate, temperature changes, very dry indoor air, improper maintenance, improper color cosmetics.How, there are internal reasons, and the most common of them - stress and poor regime.When the digestive system is broken, the blood with the intestines do not get those substances which are valuable for us, and it's highly strongly effect on a face.About gerls are so fond of washing a ice, and keep it in the winter - it can as well cause irritation.Resembling posts: Facials winter Skin care Gestation Skin care wrinkles. . . . . .

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Irritation and redness well removed with the steam bath (bath), but it can not be done with dilated vessels or pink acne.Steam bath with hops reduces redness of the facial skin. It is necessary to fill in a wide enamel pan 1 tbsp finely chopped hops, pour a liter of aqua and bring to a boil. Gently until the fluid is stewing over little heating, it is required to bend complete the pot, covered with a towel on top, and keep a facial skin complete a steam: for dry face - size 93-10 min, it is normal - 5 min, very dry - 3-4 minutes. After a steam bath want be used to the facial skin moisturizing face lotion or cream.Resembling posts: Skin care of the a chemical peel Facials fall at home Face teen. . .

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Covers - the best method to quickly moisturize, soothe, deep polish a skin. They enjoy a good effect, and act however a first aid in case chosen in accordance with a type of facial skin used for clear leads.Masks are toning, reduces pores, nourishing and healing. Applied face cover according to what purpose require to reach. If, later a long day, facial skin is tired and has lost its freshness, and you urgently must to go to a party or vacation, then a require toning cover for a face. If a skin is dry and prone to wrinkles - you wish a nourishing cover, and for combination skin - tightens pores.Thus, face masks enjoy different functions and are divided into some types.Similar articles: Masks and skin care winter Facial later cleaning Masks for skin and neck skin. .

Read more --> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15   > > > >  
  • Moisturizing Masks for skin Mask
  • Apply of face masks. Applying covers
  • Moisturizing Skin care Mask
  • Whitening face masks of freckles
  • Face Upkeep. Look after rule, very dry, oily and combination facial skin
  • Compression from irritation of the skin
  • Strengthening a eyelashes and eyebrows castor butter: Recipes
  • Care of the neck skin: the cover and scrub for a neck skin
  • Caring for normal skin
  • As to prevent the face of freckles
  • soft-open.ru

    Find Open Source Alternatives to commercial software | Open Source Alternative

    Today the future of internet begins - and open source is readyCompanies world-wide start to embrace the new standard for communication on the internet; the Internet Protocol version 6 - also known as IPv6. IPv6 will at some point replace existing IPv4 which have been used to transport our data through the internet for more than 30 years.

    The main reason to switch is that IPv4 only allows around 4 billion internet addresses. In order for one device to communicate with another on the internet each of them has to have a unique internet address (IP address). With the number of devices currently on the market - computers, smartphones, smart tvs and set-top boxes - we are already out of addresses. However, clever manipulation allows some devices to share IP addresses with other devices, but this is not an ideal situation. The sharing of addresses makes it difficult for devices to communicate freely on the internet, thus limited functionality.

    IPv6 solves the IP address issue simply by introducing a new type of IP address that can handle 3.4e+38 - or 4 billion times 4 billion times 4 billion times 4 billion. It a huge number - difficult for most people to understand. But lets just assume that we will not be running out of IP address ever again.

    Today (6/6/12) was been chosen by the Internet Society to mark the launch of IPv6 . IPv6 has been around for many years but the deployment very limited - and mainly used for research within companies and institutions. ISP, hosting providers and other companies on the internet have been repluctant to start offering services on IPv6, primarily because of the investment required both in hardware, software and training.

    The Internet Society on the other hand has tried to initiate a movement encouraging ISP, webiste and hardware vendors to take the leap to IPv6 anyway - and thus promote their businesses by using cutting-edge technology.

    Another reason why IPv6 has taken such a long time to be accepted is that it is not compatible with IPv4, even though they can exist side by side. But not being compatible means that every piece of software communicating on the internet has to be re-written to support IPv6. Luckily, a lot of software already supports IPv6 - and especially open source software. The communities around each of the open source projects have a natural interest to support new features; and many projects strive to be forerunners in these areas.

    On Open Source Alternative we have tagged each open source project that supports IPv6 with an IPv6 tag - making it easy to see and search for software that supports IPv6. A list of all IPv6 enabled open source projects is available here: Open source alternatives with IPv6 support

    One of the most important projects is Apache - the open source web server that hosts almost 2/3 of all websites on the internet. Apache is also the web server used by Open Source Alternative to make our website available on both IPv4 and IPv6. The software, however, gets you nowhere, unless your hosting provider also supports IPv6, which is the reason why Osalt switched to Linode VPS for great hosting and IPv6 connectivity to the internet.

    On the other end of a connection to an IPv6 webserver is of course an IPv6 web browser. Again, the open source community has the answer in terms of Firefox and Google Chrome.

    If you want to explore the new world of IPv6 - either check if you ISP offers IPv6 or visit http://www.tunnelbroker.net/

    Finally, you can also just wait, because sooner of later IPv6 will come to you...

    NeverNote

    Nevernote was created in response to popular demand of Linux users. A clone of Evernote, it was originally intended for Linux but can also run on Windows. Nevernote is a note-saving program that also lets you save photos, sound files and documents.

    One of the first things a person will notice is that the interface, written in Java, is not slick and attractive. It is, however, very functional and does exactly what it is supposed to do. The interface is very easy to interact with and largely self-explanatory, making for a very short learning time. You'll see different sorting options; for instance, if you click on a tag like "business meetings" you will see all the notes you've made for that subject as well as photos you took of presentation material, etc. In the largest space on the screen the actual note you selected appears.

    Nevernote will sync your notes and other saves across all your computer, iPad and SmartPhone. You can save notes, photos, anything you see or hear and even leave yourself a voice memo if you like. Just type a note and it is saved automatically.

    At this time, Nevernote doesn't have Ink Notes; you cannot write in cursive or print and have it show up on your Android or be able to edit them on your iPad. However, you can make ink notes on your computer and file them for future reference. You will also find that the search function is adequate but the more specific you are in titling your notes the easier it is for the search function to find them.

    Nevernote is an easy to use, viable alternative to those Linux users who want a program nearly exactly like Evernote.

    FreeCADFreeCAD is general purpose CAD (computer aided drawing) software that targets product design and mechanical engineering. It can be easily used for any engineering specialty, featuring tools that are modeled to function like SolidWorks, Solid Edge and Catia. Its main focus is dynamic simulation and analyzation.

    It has a GUI (graphical user interface) based on Qt framework and its 3D viewer allows quick rendering of 3D scenes. It is simple to use and easy to quickly figure out its special functions.

    For instance, FreeCAD has a plugin/module framework, divided into the core software and modules that can be added when they are needed. Geometry types and nearly all the tools are stored in the modules that can be added or taken off as needed. Tools are grouped around workbenches so that only the tools you need are displayed according to the task you are doing. This provides an uncluttered workspace that is both functional and easy to work with.

    This 3D CAD modeler has the ability to sketch in 2D or to take details from a 3D model and create 2D production drawings. Its focus is not specifically on 2D drawings or animation although it does have advanced motion simulation features; it is very adaptable and can be used in a broader area than software like Cinema 4D or Maya.

    A user can create a collection of parts and manipulate it with open or closed 3D loops. The parts can be connected with motors, springs, joints, torques or gravity; a multibody dynamics analysis can be used to predict its motion according to the laws of gravity.

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